Types of Dentists: Exploring the Different Roles and Specialties in Dentistry cover

Types of Dentists: Exploring the Different Roles and Specialties in Dentistry

When you think of a dentist, what comes to mind? Do you picture a white-coated professional with a drill and a mirror, working in a small office? While this may be a common stereotype, the reality of dentistry is much more complex and diverse. In fact, there are many different types of dentists, with different roles and specialties, working in a variety of settings.

In this article, we will explore the different types of dentists, and provide information about their roles, specialties, and training. By understanding the different types of dentists, you can make informed decisions about your oral health care, and choose the right dentist for your needs and preferences.

History of Dentistry:

Dentistry has been in practice since the beginning of civilization. Ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans practiced dentistry in some form or another. The earliest known dental practitioners were barbers who also offered dental care.

In the 1700s, French dentist Pierre Fauchard wrote a book on dentistry that introduced innovative techniques and laid the foundation for modern dentistry. In the 1800s, scientists developed anesthetics to help ease pain during procedures, and advances in technology made it possible to do more complex work with greater precision.

Today, dentists use a variety of tools and techniques to diagnose and treat a wide range of oral health conditions. With regular visits to the dentist, individuals can maintain healthy teeth and gums throughout their lives.

Education and licensing

In order to become a licensed dentist, individuals must complete a certain amount of education and training. Here’s a general overview of the process:

  1. Undergraduate education: In order to be accepted into dental school, individuals must first complete a certain amount of undergraduate coursework, which typically includes classes in biology, chemistry, and physics.
  2. Dental school: After completing their undergraduate education, individuals can apply to dental school. Dental school typically takes four years to complete and includes both classroom and clinical training.
  3. Licensing exams: Once they have graduated from dental school, individuals must pass a series of licensing exams in order to practice dentistry. These exams vary by state but generally include both written and clinical components.
  4. Continuing education: In order to maintain their license, dentists must also complete a certain amount of continuing education courses throughout their career. This helps ensure that they stay up-to-date on the latest techniques and technologies in the field.

It’s worth noting that there are several different specialties within dentistry, such as orthodontics, periodontics, and oral surgery. Individuals who wish to specialize in one of these areas may need to complete additional education and training beyond what is required for general dentistry.

Modern Dentistry

Modern dentistry has come a long way in recent years, with advances in technology and techniques providing more effective and efficient treatment options for patients. Some of the most notable developments in modern dentistry include:

  • Digital dental records: Many dental practices have switched to electronic health records, which allow for faster and more accurate record keeping and can be accessed by both the dental team and the patient.
  • 3D printing: 3D printing technology is being used in dentistry to create customized crowns, bridges, and other dental prosthetics, as well as to create surgical guides for more precise implant placement.
  • Dental lasers: Dental lasers can be used for a variety of procedures, including teeth whitening, gum reshaping, and the removal of decay. They can be less painful and require less recovery time than traditional methods.
  • CAD/CAM technology: Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology is used to create custom dental restorations, such as crowns and bridges, in a single appointment.
  • Clear aligners: Clear aligners, such as Invisalign, are a popular alternative to traditional metal braces for straightening teeth. They are virtually invisible and can be removed for eating and brushing.

Overall, modern dentistry has greatly improved the patient experience and has made it easier for dental professionals to provide high-quality care.

General Dentists

General dentists are the most common type of dentist, and the first point of contact for most patients. General dentists provide a range of preventive, diagnostic, and restorative services, and are trained to diagnose and treat a wide variety of dental problems.

General dentists typically work in private practice, where they see patients of all ages, from children to adults. They are responsible for maintaining the overall health of their patients’ teeth and gums, and providing regular check-ups, cleanings, and x-rays. They also provide fillings, extractions, and other procedures to restore damaged or infected teeth, and may refer patients to specialists for more complex or specialized treatment.

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Specialty Dentists

Specialty dentists are dentists who have completed additional training and education in a specific area of dentistry. Specialty dentists may work in private practice, or may work in hospitals, clinics, or academic settings, providing specialized care to patients with complex or specific needs.

There are nine recognized dental specialties in the United States, which are recognized by the American Dental Association (ADA):

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that focuses on the health of the teeth and oral cavity. Dentists are healthcare professionals who are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of dental conditions, from cavities and gum disease to tooth loss and oral cancer.

There are several different types of dentistry, each with its own focus and specialty. Some of the most common types of dentistry include:

General dentistry:

General dentistry is the most broad and common type of dentistry. General dentists are primary care providers for the teeth and mouth, and they provide a wide range of services, including regular cleanings, fillings, extractions, and X-rays.

  • Common treatments: cleanings, fillings, extractions, and tooth replacements
  • Common conditions treated: cavities, gum disease, tooth loss

Preventive Dentistry

Preventive dentistry is a branch of dentistry focused on the prevention of oral health issues, such as cavities, gum disease, and tooth loss. Common treatments in preventive dentistry include regular cleanings, fluoride treatments, and dental sealants. Common conditions treated in preventive dentistry include cavities, gingivitis, and early-stage gum disease. By focusing on prevention, patients can avoid more costly and invasive treatments in the future.

  • Common treatments: cleanings, fluoride treatments, sealants
  • Common conditions treated: cavities, gum disease, enamel erosion

Restorative dentistry:

Restorative dentistry focuses on the repair and replacement of damaged or missing teeth. Restorative dentists use a variety of procedures, such as dental fillings, tooth replacement, root canals, and dentures, to restore the function, appearance, and health of the teeth and mouth.

Preventive dentistry: Preventive dentistry focuses on preventing dental problems before they occur. Preventive dentists provide services such as regular cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants to help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

  • Common treatments: crowns, bridges, and fillings
  • Common conditions treated: tooth decay, broken or damaged teeth

Cosmetic dentistry:

Cosmetic dentistry focuses on improving the appearance of the teeth and mouth. Cosmetic dentists use procedures such as teeth whitening, veneers, and braces to enhance the smile and improve the overall appearance of the teeth.

  • Common treatments: teeth whitening, veneers, and bonding
  • Common conditions treated: discolored teeth, uneven or chipped teeth, gaps between teeth


Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the alignment of the teeth and jaw. Orthodontists use braces and other appliances to straighten the teeth and correct any misalignment or bite problems.

  • Common treatments: braces, retainers, and aligners
  • Common conditions treated: crooked or misaligned teeth, overbites, underbites, and crossbites


Periodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the health of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. Periodontists specialize in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of gum disease, including scaling and root planing, gum grafting, and dental implants.

  • Common treatments: cleanings, scaling and root planing, and gum grafts
  • Common conditions treated: gum disease, receding gums


Endodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the inside of the teeth, specifically the pulp and root canal. Endodontists specialize in procedures such as root canals and endodontic surgery to treat infected or damaged teeth.

  • Common treatments: root canal therapy
  • Common conditions treated: infected or damaged tooth pulp


Prosthodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the restoration and replacement of missing teeth. Prosthodontists use procedures such as dental crowns, bridges, and dentures to restore the function and appearance of the teeth and mouth.

  • Common treatments: dentures, crowns, bridges, and implant restorations
  • Common conditions treated: missing teeth, severely damaged teeth

Pediatric dentistry:

Pediatric dentistry is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of children. Pediatric dentists are specially trained to provide dental care for infants, children, and teenagers, including regular cleanings, fillings, and sealants.

Laser dentistry: Laser dentistry is the use of lasers to perform dental procedures. Laser dentists use lasers to remove decay, reshape gums, and perform other dental procedures with greater precision and less discomfort.

Sports dentistry: Sports dentistry is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the oral health of athletes. Sports dentists provide services such as mouthguards and other athletic mouthwear to prevent dental injuries and promote overall oral health.

  • Common treatments: cleanings, fillings, and tooth extractions
  • Common conditions treated: cavities, tooth decay, misaligned teeth

Sedation dentistry:

Sedation dentistry is the use of medication to help patients relax during dental procedures. Sedation dentists use medications such as nitrous oxide and intravenous sedation to help patients who experience anxiety or fear during dental treatments.

  • Common treatments: intravenous sedation, nitrous oxide, and oral sedation
  • Common conditions treated: dental anxiety, complex dental procedures
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Slow dentistry:

Slow dentistry is a philosophy of dental care that focuses on minimal intervention and holistic health. Slow dentists prioritize patient comfort, health, and well-being, and they use techniques such as biomimetic dentistry and holistic dentistry to promote overall dental health.

  • Common treatments: relaxation techniques and alternative treatment approaches
  • Common conditions treated: dental anxiety, complex dental procedures

Neuromuscular dentistry:

Neuromuscular dentistry is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the relationship between the teeth, muscles, and nerves of the jaw. Neuromuscular dentists use advanced technology and techniques to diagnose and treat conditions such as TMJ disorder and facial pain.

  • Common treatments: bite adjustments, muscle relaxation techniques
  • Common conditions treated: jaw pain, headaches, and teeth grinding

Maxillofacial rehabilitation:

Maxillofacial rehabilitation is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the rehabilitation of the face and jaws. Maxillofacial rehabilitation dentists use procedures such as facial trauma surgery and jaw surgery to restore function and appearance to the face and mouth.

  • Common treatments: jaw surgery, facial reconstructions
  • Common conditions treated: facial deformities, jaw injuries, and birth defects

Oral and maxillofacial surgery:

Oral and maxillofacial surgery is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions and injuries of the mouth, face, and jaw. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons perform procedures such as wisdom teeth removal, jaw surgery, and facial implants.

  • Common treatments: wisdom tooth extraction, jaw surgery, and dental implants
  • Common conditions treated: impacted wisdom teeth, jaw misalignment, and tooth loss

Forensic dentistry:

Forensic dentistry is the application of dental knowledge and techniques to the legal system. Forensic dentists use their expertise to identify unknown individuals, determine the cause and manner of death, and provide expert testimony in court cases.

  • Common treatments: analyzing dental records for legal cases
  • Common conditions treated: identification of unknown individuals, age estimation, and bite mark analysis

Oral pathology:

Oral pathology is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis and study of diseases of the mouth and jaws. Oral pathologists use biopsy and other techniques to diagnose oral cancer and other oral conditions.

  • Common treatments: biopsy, tumor removal
  • Common conditions treated: oral cancer, benign tumors, and infections

Dental public health:

Dental public health is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the health of the population as a whole. Dental public health specialists work to promote dental health and prevent dental diseases through education, research, and policy development.

  • Common treatments: education and prevention programs, community water fluoridation
  • Common conditions treated: dental caries, periodontal disease

Geriatric Dentistry

Geriatric Dentistry, also known as gerodontics, is a dental specialty focused on the care of elderly patients. As we age, our oral health needs can change and it is important to have a dental professional who is trained in addressing these specific needs.

Common treatments in geriatric dentistry include:

  • Cleanings and exams to monitor oral health and prevent issues from developing or worsening
  • Fillings and crowns to repair damaged teeth
  • Dentures or other types of tooth replacements to restore missing teeth

Common conditions treated in geriatric dentistry include:

  • Tooth decay and gum disease, which are more common as we age and can lead to tooth loss if left untreated
  • Dry mouth, which can be caused by certain medications and can lead to tooth decay and gum disease
  • Tooth sensitivity, which can be caused by gum recession or tooth wear
  • Difficulty chewing and swallowing, which can be caused by tooth loss or changes in the jawbone.

Special Care (Needs) Dentistry:

Special Care (Needs) Dentistry is a field of dentistry that focuses on providing dental care to individuals with physical, medical, developmental, or psychological disabilities. These individuals may have difficulty accessing traditional dental care due to their unique needs and challenges. Special Care Dentistry aims to provide dental care in a safe, comfortable, and accessible environment, often utilizing specialized equipment and techniques to meet the needs of these patients.

  • Common treatments: Cleanings, fillings, extractions, root canals, dentures, dental crowns, dental bridges
  • Common conditions treated: Tooth decay, gum disease, tooth loss, oral infections, malocclusion (misalignment of the teeth)

Dental sleep medicine:

Dental sleep medicine is the branch of dentistry that focuses on the treatment of sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and snoring. Dental sleep medicine specialists provide services such as oral appliance therapy and other treatments to help patients get a better night’s sleep.

  • Common treatments: oral appliance therapy
  • Common conditions treated: sleep apnea, snoring

Most common Dental Treatments:

  • Dental fillings: This is a common treatment for cavities, which are small holes in the teeth caused by tooth decay. The dentist will remove the decayed tissue and fill the hole with a material such as amalgam or composite resin.
  • Root canal therapy: This treatment is used to save a tooth that has become infected or damaged. The dentist will remove the infected or damaged tissue from inside the tooth, and then fill and seal the tooth to prevent further damage.
  • Dental crowns: A crown is a cap that is placed over a tooth to protect it and restore its shape and function. Crowns can be made of materials such as porcelain, ceramic, or metal.
  • Dental bridges: A bridge is a dental appliance that is used to replace missing teeth. It consists of one or more artificial teeth (called pontics) that are supported by crowns on either side.
  • Dental implants: This is a treatment used to replace missing teeth. A small titanium post is surgically placed in the jawbone, and a crown is then attached to the post to replace the missing tooth.
  • Teeth whitening: This is a cosmetic treatment that is used to lighten and brighten the color of the teeth. It can be done in the dentist’s office or at home using a whitening kit.
  • Orthodontic treatment: This treatment is used to straighten teeth and correct bite problems. It can include the use of braces or other appliances to move the teeth into their proper position.
  • Gum treatment: This treatment is used to treat gum disease, which is an infection of the gums that can lead to tooth loss. It may include scaling and root planing (a deep cleaning of the teeth and gums) and/or the use of medication to kill bacteria and reduce inflammation.

Most common dental conditions

  • Cavities: Cavities, or tooth decay, occur when bacteria in the mouth produce acid that eats away at the enamel of the teeth.
  • Gum disease: Gum disease, or periodontal disease, is an infection of the gums that can lead to tooth loss if left untreated.
  • Tooth sensitivity: Tooth sensitivity occurs when the nerves in the teeth are exposed, often as a result of gum recession or tooth wear.
  • Bad breath: Bad breath, or halitosis, can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain medications, and certain health conditions.
  • Teeth grinding: Teeth grinding, or bruxism, can cause tooth wear and damage, and may also lead to jaw pain and headaches.

Fun facts about dentistry:

  • The first known dentist was an ancient Egyptian named Hesy-Re, who lived around 2600 BCE.
  • Toothpaste was first used by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, who mixed crushed bones and other substances with water to clean their teeth.
  • The first dental school was founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1828.
  • Modern braces were invented by Edward Angle, an American dentist, in the early 1900s.
  • Laser dentistry was first used in the 1990s and has become increasingly popular in recent years.

Evidenced based dentistry

Evidenced based dentistry is a modern approach to dental care that involves using the best available scientific evidence to guide treatment decisions. This approach helps dentists ensure that their patients are receiving the most effective and appropriate care possible.

It involves using clinical research, systematic reviews, and other forms of evidence to inform treatment plans and protocols. By relying on evidence rather than tradition or personal experience, dentists can provide their patients with the most up-to-date and effective care available.

Some common treatments provided by dentists using an evidence-based approach include fillings, root canals, and periodontal care. Common conditions treated using evidence-based dentistry include tooth decay, gum disease, and dental trauma.

Ethical and medicolegal issues

Like all medical professionals, dentists have a responsibility to follow ethical guidelines and adhere to medicolegal standards. This includes upholding patient confidentiality, obtaining informed consent, and avoiding conflicts of interest.

In addition to these ethical considerations, dentists must also be aware of and follow medicolegal regulations related to their practice. This includes maintaining accurate and thorough patient records, obtaining consent for treatment, and following protocols for prescribing medications.

Violating ethical or medicolegal standards can result in disciplinary action, including the revocation of a dental license. It is important for dentists to be aware of and adhere to these standards in order to ensure the safety and well-being of their patients and maintain the integrity of the dental profession.

FAQs about dentistry:

What is dentistry?

Dentistry is the branch of medicine that focuses on the health of the teeth and mouth. Dentists are healthcare professionals who are trained to diagnose and treat a wide range of dental conditions.

What are the different types of dentistry?

Some of the different types of dentistry include general dentistry, restorative dentistry, preventive dentistry, cosmetic dentistry, orthodontics, periodontics, endodontics, prosthodontics, pediatric dentistry, laser dentistry, sports dentistry, sedation dentistry, slow dentistry, neuromuscular dentistry, maxillofacial rehabilitation, oral and maxillofacial surgery, forensic dentistry, oral pathology, dental public health, and dental sleep medicine.

Who can provide dental care?

Dental care is provided by dentists and other dental professionals, such as dental hygienists and dental assistants. Dentists are licensed healthcare professionals who have completed a program of study at a dental school and passed a licensing exam.

What is the importance of dental care?

Dental care is important for maintaining the overall health of the teeth and mouth. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings can help prevent dental problems such as tooth decay and gum disease, which can lead to pain, infection, and tooth loss. Good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly, can also help prevent dental problems and promote overall health and well-being.

Overall, there are many different types of dentists, with different roles and specialties, working in a variety of settings. By understanding the different types of dentists, you can make informed decisions about your oral health care, and choose the right dentist for your needs and preferences. Whether you need preventive, restorative, or specialized care, there is a dentist who can help you maintain a healthy, happy smile.

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Dr Rockson BDS, PgDM, DBM (Germany) & Awarded Content Marketeer of the year 2020 & Love telling story for brands.

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